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9 February 2001 Broadband measurements of lunar radiances using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensors
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12 Currently, the moon is being used as a radiometric target to determine on-orbit relative shifts or shifts in the responses of certain spacecraft shortwave sensors. Along these lines, the 1998 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) thermistor bolometer sensor observations of lunar radiances were analyzed to evaluate the feasibility using the lunar radiances to calibrate the CERES sensor responses. Over a 5 to 110 degree phase angle range, the CERES sensors were used to measure: broadband shortwave (0.3 micrometers to 5.0 micrometers ) moon-reflected solar filtered radiances; broadband total (0.3 micrometers to more than 100 micrometers ) moon- reflected solar and moon-emitted longwave filtered radiances; and narrowband window (8 micrometers to 12 micrometers ) moon- emitted longwave filtered radiances. The TRMM/CERES on-orbit radiance measurements are tied to an International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) modeled radiometric scale at uncertainty levels approaching 0.2% (0.2 Wm-2sr-1). Therefore, the TRMM/CERES measurements should be useful in forecasting the precisions of scheduled CERES lunar measurements from the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecraft platforms near phase angle of 22 and 55 degrees, respectively. The 7-degree phase angle, 1998 CERES shortwave, total, and window measurements yielded lunar filtered radiances of approximately 4.5+/- 0.2, 24.4+/- 0.5, and 4.5+/- 0.2 Wm-2sr-1, respectively. These lunar measurements indicate that broadband shortwave radiances can be characterized at the 5% uncertainty range. The 7-degree, shortwave lunar radiances were found to be approximately 1.5 and 3 times brighter greater the corresponding radiances found at the 22-degree and 55-degree phase angles, respectively. Therefore, the Terra and Aqua CERES lunar shortwave measurements near 22.5- degree and 55-degree phase angles should yield projected precisions in the 7% and 15% range, respectively. The CERES lunar filtered radiance are presented and discussed. Research efforts are outlined briefly for comparing the total sensor broadband and window narrowband longwave lunar radiances during the January 9, 2001 lunar eclipse.
© (2001) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Robert Benjamin Lee III, G. Louis Smith, Peter L. Spence, Dale R. Walikainen, Zbigniew Peter Szewczyk, Jack Paden, and Kory J. Priestley "Broadband measurements of lunar radiances using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft/Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensors", Proc. SPIE 4169, Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites IV, (9 February 2001);

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