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6 April 2001 Application of the self-diagnosis composite into concrete structure
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The function and performance of the self-diagnosis composites embedded in mortar/concrete blocks and concrete piles were investigated by bending tests and electrical resistance measurements. Carbon powder (CP) and carbon fiber (CF) were introduced in glass fiber reinforced plastics composites to obtain electrical conductivity. The CP composite has commonly good performances in various bending tests of block and pile specimens, comparing to the CF composite. The electrical resistance of the CP composite increases in a small strain to response remarkably micro-crack formation at about 200 (mu) strain and to detect well to smaller deformations before the crack formation. The CP composite possesses a continuous resistance change up to a large strain level near the final fracture of concrete structures reinforced by steel bars. The cyclic bending tests showed that the micro crack closed at unloading state was able to be evaluated from the measurement of residual resistance. It has been concluded that the self- diagnosis composite is fairly useful for the measurement of damage and fracture in concrete blocks and piles.
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Hideaki Matsubara, Soon-Gi Shin, Yoshiki Okuhara, Hiroshi Nomura, and Hiroaki Yanagida "Application of the self-diagnosis composite into concrete structure", Proc. SPIE 4234, Smart Materials, (6 April 2001);

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