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11 July 2001 Single-crystal piezoelectrics for advanced transducer and smart structures applications
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Single crystal piezoelectrics based on xPb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(1-x)- PbTiO3 and xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-(1- x)PbTiO3 show great promise for dramatically improving the performance of medical ultrasound transducers, sonar transducers, active flow control actuators, high strain energy density stack actuators, and microactuators. Improvements in crystal growth and manufacturing are yielding large numbers of crystals for device performance evaluations. Property variations have been minimized by identifying the sources of variations and designing manufacturing processes to eliminate property-degrading defects from the final components. Crystal size increases and cost reductions have resulted from replacing flux grown PZN-PT with PMN-PT crystals produced by the Bridgman method. Finally, low crystal stiffness has been shown to not be a hindrance in maintaining high properties under compressive prestress or in packaged devices such as epoxy bonded stack actuators.
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Wesley S. Hackenberger, Paul W. Rehrig, Ming-Jen Pan, and Thomas R. Shrout "Single-crystal piezoelectrics for advanced transducer and smart structures applications", Proc. SPIE 4333, Smart Structures and Materials 2001: Active Materials: Behavior and Mechanics, (11 July 2001);

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