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30 January 2002 Grating groove metrology and efficiency predictions from the soft x-ray to the far infrared
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Methods for surface metrology have advanced significantly in the last few years, driven largely by the metrology needs for advanced lithographic processes. This paper applies recently developed metrology techniques to the specific problem of determining the groove structure of diffraction gratings well enough to reliably predict performance. Metrology devices used include an atomic force microscope, a contact profilometer, and a late-model optical microinterferometer. Examples of shallow (far-UV, high dispersion) and deep (IR echelle) gratings are presented, along with some conclusions of which metrology techniques are applicable for which types of diffraction grating. Also required along with the metrology is the use of fast, full electromagnetic model efficiency calculation codes which calculate the efficiency to be expected from a given mount, materials set, and grating profile. We present results qualifying codes we use against known and published results.
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David A. Content, Petar Arsenovic, Ivan G. Kuznetsov, and Theo Hadjimichael "Grating groove metrology and efficiency predictions from the soft x-ray to the far infrared", Proc. SPIE 4485, Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, (30 January 2002);

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