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24 April 2002 Image sensor based on pulse frequency modulation for retinal prosthesis
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We demonstrate an application of a CMOS image sensor using pulse frequency modulation for retinal prosthesis. To increase the sensitivity we use a pulse frequency modulation (PFM) instead of a conventional integration method. The fundamental device characteristics of PFM are described. Based on the results of the PFM pixel circuit, we have fabricated A 128 X 128 pixel array chip using 0.35 micrometers CMOS technology, and successfully demonstrated to capture images by using this chip. For the application of the PFM to retinal prosthesis, the output characteristics of PFM are modified in the frequency range, current stimulation, and biphasic output. Also future issues for implantation are discussed.
© (2002) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Jun Ohta, Norikatsu Yoshida, Tetsuo Furumiya, Keiichiro Kagawa, and Masahiro Nunoshita "Image sensor based on pulse frequency modulation for retinal prosthesis", Proc. SPIE 4669, Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications III, (24 April 2002);


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