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17 May 2002 2D noise propagation in 3D object position determination from a single-perspective projection
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Image guidance during endovascular intervention is predominantly provided by two-dimensional (2D) digital radiographic systems used for vessel visualization and localization of clips and coils. This paper describes the propagation of 2D noise in the determination of three-dimensional (3D) object position from a single perspective view. In our system, a view is obtained by a digital fluoroscopic x-ray system, corrected for XRII distortions (+/- 0.035mm) and mechanical C-arm shifts (+/- 0.080mm). The tracked object contains high-contrast markers with known relative spacing, allowing for identification and centroid calculation. A least-square projection-Procrustes analysis of the 2D perspective projection is used to determine the 3D position of the object. The effect of uncertainty in 2D marker position on the precision of the 3D object localization using simulations and phantoms was investigated and a nearly linear relationship was found; however, the slope of this relationship is not unity. The slope found indicates a significant amplification of error due to the least-square solution, which is not equally distributed among the 3 major axes. In order to obtain a 3D localization error of less than +/- 1mm, the 2D localization precision must be better than +/- 0.2mm for each marker.
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Damiaan F. Habets, Steven Pollmann, and David W. Holdsworth "2D noise propagation in 3D object position determination from a single-perspective projection", Proc. SPIE 4681, Medical Imaging 2002: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display, (17 May 2002);

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