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9 May 2002 Integrated approach to brightness- and contrast-invariant detection of the heart in SPECT imaging
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In this paper we propose an appearance-based method to heart detection by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast to conventional methods of PCA-based training, there is no brightness and contrast normalization since such normalization is usually based on maximum and minimum intensity values and is very sensitive to noises. We propose to integrate the normalization procedure into the detection phase. This is achieved by projecting the intensity-transformed image (with unknown scale and shift parameters) onto the eigen-images and minimizing the error of fit. This leads to a set of equations on both the intensity transformation parameters and the projection coefficients. By using the least-squares method, these equations can be easily solved for the scale and shift parameters. After an initial detection of heart positions is conducted, robust fitting of the heart trajectory is used to correct any detection errors. Besides, we also propose an eigen-image re-orthonormalization method for multiple resolution detection without extra training on multiple scales.
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Guo-Qing Wei, JianZhong Qian, and John Engdahl "Integrated approach to brightness- and contrast-invariant detection of the heart in SPECT imaging", Proc. SPIE 4684, Medical Imaging 2002: Image Processing, (9 May 2002);

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