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11 July 2002 Ionic polymer-metal composites: fundamentals and phenomenological modeling
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In this paper we present an extended summary of the fundamental properties and characteristics of Ionic Polymeric-Metal Composites (IPMCs) as biomemetic sensors, actuators, and artificial muscles. Als, the phenomenological modeling of the underlying sensing and actuation mechanisms in IPMCs is presented based on linear irreversible thermodynamics with two driving forces; an electric field and a solvent pressure gradient and two fluxes, electric current and solvent flux. The importance of capacitors which arise from nanoparticles residing at the surface/subsurface of IPMCs is also discussed. We also present some quantitative experimental results on the Onsager coefficients.
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Mohsen Shahinpoor and Kwang J. Kim "Ionic polymer-metal composites: fundamentals and phenomenological modeling", Proc. SPIE 4695, Smart Structures and Materials 2002: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), (11 July 2002);

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