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17 March 2003 Assessment of hyperspectral imaging system for poultry safety inspection
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A hyperspectral imaging system demonstrated potential to detect surface fecal and ingesta contaminants on poultry carcasses. Hyperspectral data were analyzed with four pre-processing methods considering two parameters: calibration and 20-nm spectral smoothing. A band-ratio image-processing algorithm, using band equation including 2-wavelengths (565 nm / 517 nm) and 3-wavelengths (576 nm - 616 nm)/(529 nm - 616 nm) equations, was then applied to each pre-processed method that included applying a background mask to the ratio of images, and finally applying a fecal threshold. Based on a high accuracy of 96.2% for predicting surface contaminants and significantly less false positives on the 64 birds measured, the calibrated smooth method was considered the best pre-processing method for contaminant detection. In conjunction with an appropriate image-processing algorithm, the hyperspectral imaging system is an effective technique for the identification of fecal and ingesta contaminants on poultry carcasses. Specifically, band ratio with 2-wavelength equation (565/517) performed very well with 96.4% accuracy and 147 false positives for detecting both feces (duodenum, ceca, colon) and ingesta contaminants.
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Bosoon Park, Kurt C. Lawrence, William R. Windham, and Doug P. Smith "Assessment of hyperspectral imaging system for poultry safety inspection", Proc. SPIE 4879, Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology IV, (17 March 2003);

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