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12 September 2002 Laser creating precise three-dimensional image of object inside glass
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Fabrication of an object image inside glass material can be realized by laser direct writing with a programmable motion system. In the focus depth direction, namely Z-direction, the really formed dimension will have some difference from the distance moved by the motion system because of light refraction effect, which causes a deformation of the image from the object. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the object dimension in Z-direction in the executive program. The required amount of the dimension modification depends on the refractive index of the glass and the numerical aperture of the focus lens used. A formula for the dependence of the amount of dimension modification on the refractive index and the numerical aperture is presented based on Snell’s law. Experimental results show that the image created inside glass really reflects the dimension feature of the object with a programming dimension modification in Z-direction in terms of the formula presented. A comparison of a sphere and a cub images created inside glass with the dimension modification with that without the modification is produced for making sure the importance of the dimension modification.
© (2002) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Chengwu An, Kaidong D. Ye, and Ming Hui Hong "Laser creating precise three-dimensional image of object inside glass", Proc. SPIE 4915, Lasers in Material Processing and Manufacturing, (12 September 2002);

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