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3 April 2003 Surface structure and optical properties of proton-exchanged Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides
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Abstract
The topmost surface of crystal after all stages of proton-exchanged Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguide preparation was studied using atomic force microscopy and high energy electron diffraction. The formation of the flat terraces with minimal height step ~0.24 nm as a result of high temperature annealing has been detected. The global changing of crystal surface morphology induced by Ti diffusing was observed. Ion exchange has no influence upon surface microrelief. No new phase formation on the surface was detected. The stability of refractive index was investigated.
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Ivan E. Kalabin, Tatiana I. Grigorieva, Lev D. Pokrovsky, Dmitriy V. Sheglov, Denis I. Shevtsov, and Victor V. Atuchin "Surface structure and optical properties of proton-exchanged Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides", Proc. SPIE 4944, Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, (3 April 2003); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.470232
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