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2 June 2003 Microscope illumination systems for 157 nm
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The image quality of an inspection microscope depends strongly on the performance of the illumination system. Especially in the case of laser-based illumination it is necessary to transform the original beam profile into a homogeneous light spot with a flat top field distribution. Simultaneously, speckles caused by the coherence of the laser have to be reduced. Here we discuss different ways to homogenize the multi mode beam profile of a pulsed compact 157 nm excimer laser. A variety of setups, combining dynamic acting diffusers, microlens arrays and primary lenses were realized and characterized in several geometrical arrangements. The homogenizers were evaluated and characterized especially with respect to the statistical behavior on the integrated pulse number.
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Alexander Pesch, Kristina Uhlendorf, Arnaud Deparnay, Lars Erdmann, Peter Kuschnerus, Thomas Engel, and Robert Brunner "Microscope illumination systems for 157 nm", Proc. SPIE 5038, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XVII, (2 June 2003);

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