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1 August 2003 Pressure and temperature distribution in biological tissues by focused ultrasound
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The interaction between ultrasound and biological tissues has been the subject of a number of investigators for nearly half a century and the number of applications of high intensity, focused ultrasound for therapeutic purposes continues to grow. This paper is motivated by possible medical applications of focused ultrasound in minimally invasive treatment of a variety of musculoskeletal disorders that are responsive to thermal treatment. The mechanical and thermal effects in a subject’s body induced by high-frequency ultrasound are simulated using PZFlex, a finite element based program. The FEM model described in this report is of a transverse section of the body at the level of the second lumbar vertebra (L2) extracted from a CT image. In order to protect the nerves inside the spinal canal as well as to obtain an effective heating result at the focal region within the intervertebral disk, a suitable orientation of axis of the focused ultrasound lens have to be determined in advance. The pressure, energy loss distribution and temperature distribution are investigated in this paper with the different orientations of the axis and different transverse diameter of the spherical ultrasound lens. Since nonlinear effects are expected to be important in the therapeutic application in some literatures, this paper also demonstrates the effects of nonlinearities on the pressure and temperature distribution induced by focused ultrasound in a two dimensional model. Finally, a comparison of the results between linear and nonlinear cases is reported.
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Ajit K. Mal, Feng Feng, Michael Kabo, Jeffrey Wang, and Yoseph Bar-Cohen "Pressure and temperature distribution in biological tissues by focused ultrasound", Proc. SPIE 5047, Smart Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring of Structural and Biological Systems II, (1 August 2003);

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