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18 August 2003 Online location of a break in water distribution systems
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Breaks often occur to urban water distribution systems under severely cold weather, or due to corrosion of pipes, deformation of ground, etc., and the breaks cannot easily be located, especially immediately after the events. This paper develops a methodology to locate a break in a water distribution system by monitoring water pressure online at some nodes in the water distribution system. For the purpose of online monitoring, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) technology can well be used. A neural network-based inverse analysis method is constructed for locating the break based on the variation of water pressure. The neural network is trained by using analytically simulated data from the water distribution system, and validated by using a set of data that have never been used in the training. It is found that the methodology provides a quick, effective, and practical way in which a break in a water distribution system can be located.
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Jianwen Liang, Di Xiao, Xinhua Zhao, and Hongwei Zhang "Online location of a break in water distribution systems", Proc. SPIE 5057, Smart Structures and Materials 2003: Smart Systems and Nondestructive Evaluation for Civil Infrastructures, (18 August 2003);

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