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21 April 2003 Empirical model of the metal losses in integrated inductors
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Proceedings Volume 5117, VLSI Circuits and Systems; (2003)
Event: Microtechnologies for the New Millennium 2003, 2003, Maspalomas, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain
Integrated inductors are key components in Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFICs) because they are needed in several building blocks, such as voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs), low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), mixers, or filters. The cost reduction, achieved in the circuit assemblage, makes them preferable to Surface Mounted Devices in spite of the different sources of lost that limits the use of integrated inductors; there are losses associated with the semiconductor substrate, and losses in the metals. We report, in this work, our research in modeling integrated inductors, particularly the losses in the metals. The model is derived from measurements taken from integrated spiral inductors designed and fabricated in a standard silicon process. The measurements reveal that the widely accepted lumped equivalent model does not properly predict the integrated inductor behavior at frequencies above 3 GHz for our technology. We propose a simple modification in the lumped equivalent circuit model: the introduction of an empirical resistor in the port 1-to-port 2 branch of the equivalent circuit. As a result, it will be demonstrated that the integrated inductor behavior is adequately predicted in a wider frequency range than does the conventional model. We also report a new methodology for characterizing the integrated inductors including the new resistor. In addition, the new model is used to build-up an integrated inductor library containing optimized integrated inductors.
© (2003) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
F. Javier del Pino, Javier Garcia, Benito Gonzalez, Jose Ramón Sendra, Antonio Hernandez, Andres Garcia-Alonso, and Antonio Nunez "Empirical model of the metal losses in integrated inductors", Proc. SPIE 5117, VLSI Circuits and Systems, (21 April 2003);

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