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10 February 2004 A remote Raman system for planetary exploration: evaluating remote Raman efficiency
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Landers and rovers are important to solar system exploration, and we are designing and analyzing a remote Raman system for a planetary mission. Raman spectroscopy is a common and powerful technique for materials analysis. We have developed a system that enables Raman spectroscopic measurements at distances of more than 50 meters. In order to design a flight instrument, we need to quantitatively understand the Raman efficiency of natural surfaces. We define remote Raman efficiency as the ratio of radiant exitance leaving a natural surface to the irradiance of the incident laser. The radiant exitance of a natural surface is the product of the sample radiance (minus background), the projected solid angle in steradians, and the spectral bandwidth of the spectrometer. The laser irradiance is the product of the energy of the laser (mJ/pulse) and the pulse rate (Hz), divided by the area of the laser spot. We have determined the remote Raman efficiency for several minerals and rocks: dolomite marble, dacite, milky quartz, anorthosite, calcite, biotite granite, magnesite, chert, gypsum (selenite), fibrous gypsum, and sandstone. By quantifying the remote Raman efficiency, we will be able to determine the number and quality of spectra that a remote Raman system can acquire on a planetary surface where available power is limited. Studies on hematite indicate that Raman shift (and thus remote Raman efficiency) depends on laser wavelength.
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Julie D. Stopar, Paul G. Lucey, Shiv K. Sharma, Anupam K. Misra, and Hugh W. Hubble "A remote Raman system for planetary exploration: evaluating remote Raman efficiency", Proc. SPIE 5163, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology VII, (10 February 2004);

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