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3 November 2003 Applications of index-gradient artificial dielectrics
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In most optical materials the atomic or molecular structure is so fine that the propagation of light within them may be characterized by their refractive indices. When an object has structure which is larger than the wavelength of light, its influence on the propagation of light may be described by the laws of diffraction, refraction and reflection. Between these two extremes is a region in which there is structure that is too fine to give rise to diffraction in the usual sense but is too coarse for the medium to be considered as homogeneous. Recent developments in micro-lithography have extended the possibility of generating sub-wavelength structures and it is now possible to produce materials with remarkable new optical properties.
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Philippe Lalanne, Jean-Claude Rodier, Pierre H. Chavel, Edmond Cambril, A. Talneau, and Yong Chen "Applications of index-gradient artificial dielectrics", Proc. SPIE 5183, Lithographic and Micromachining Techniques for Optical Component Fabrication II, (3 November 2003);

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