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16 February 2004 Surface Ni-doped ITO films for OLED application
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Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films with thin Ni-doped surface layers were prepared for organic light emitting diode (OLED) application. The top Ni-doped ITO surface layer were synthesized using Ni (RF) and ITO (DC) co-sputtering method at 120°C and annealed at 300°C for 10 minutes in vacuum to form a modulated work function layer in contact with the subsequently deposited light emitting organic layers. OLED devices with an Al/Alq3/NPB/Ni-doped ITO/ITO/glass structure were fabricated to investigate the effect of the Ni-doped ITO layer on the characteristics of the luminescence efficiency. The depositions of the Al/Alq3/NPB stacked films on top of the Ni-doped ITO/ITO/glass sample were conducted using thermal evaporation in a cluster tool without breaking the vacuum. Initial results show that the device turn-on voltage decreases from 10 volts to 6 volts and the luminescence efficiency was improved by 36% due to the existence of the Ni-doped ITO layer. It was also found that the optical transmittance of the ITO film decreased with the Ni concentration, resulting in external quantum efficiency deterioration by 3%. It was suspected that the presence of Ni (Φ~5.2eV compared to that of ITO ~4.2eV) on ITO surface decreases the heterojunction barrier height at the ITO/NPB interface, allowing more effective transportation of hole-carriers and hence an enhancement on the external quantum efficiency. However the optical impurity scattering of the Ni atoms in the ITO matrix caused the deterioration of the optical transparency and negative effect on the external quantum efficiency.
© (2004) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Ching-Ming Hsu, Ian-Fu Chen, and Jin-Win Lee "Surface Ni-doped ITO films for OLED application", Proc. SPIE 5214, Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices VII, (16 February 2004);

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