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17 December 2003 Dose-modulation-induced mask CD error on simultaneous correction of fogging and loading effect
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In order to analyze a simultaneous correction of fogging and loading effect, the e-beam lithographic simulation was performed with dose modulation method. The in-house e-beam simulator which adopts Monte-Carlo method for electron scattering is used for performing Proximity Effect Correction (PEC) and fogging correction during the e-beam lithographic processes. Various values of theta, representative parameter which describes the deposited energy by fogging, are used for simulation. Fogging effect is well known phenomenon which is the additional energy deposition into large exposed area by second electron scattering, and this fogging correction is successfully achieved by dose modulation method. However, etch loading cannot be compensated properly by modulating dose due to its unique property. From the simulation results, it is obviously necessary to correct etch loading effect and fogging effect simultaneously in order to cure global and local CD errors. The bigger loading effect is, the bigger local CD error induced by dose modulation method is to be generated. This global error is reducible but irremovable perfectly owing the discrepancy between the property of etch loading effect and dose modulation. However, the proper selection of eta, the ratio of the energy deposition into resist from the back scattering electrons verse the forward scattering electrons, can remarkably reduce the global and local CD errors. As a consequence, the method of the dose modulation is not the perfect way to correct the CD errors induced by etch loading or positional induced error. Nevertheless, the dose modulation method with variable eta can be an alternative way to control the designed CD because of its precision and rapidity.
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Hojune Lee, Seung-Hune Yang, Jin-Hong Park, Seong-Yong Moon, Seong-Woon Choi, and Jung-Min Sohn "Dose-modulation-induced mask CD error on simultaneous correction of fogging and loading effect", Proc. SPIE 5256, 23rd Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, (17 December 2003);

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