Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique that enables trace detection of analytes of relevance using fieldable equipment. SERS uses the enhanced Raman signals observed when an analyte adsorbs to a roughened metal substrate, generally gold, silver, or copper. Coupled to a microscope, single molecule detection has been demonstrated. With a fieldable instrument, enhancements of 108 compared to unenhanced Raman spectroscopy are expected, allowing trace detection in the field. Proper development of the metal substrate will optimize the sensitivity and selectivity towards the analytes of interest. In this presentation, we will discuss applications under development at EIC Laboratories that are of importance to Homeland Defense. We will review the capabilities of SERS to detect buried explosives, explosives associated with nuclear weaponry and chemicals involved in the nuclear enrichment process. We will discuss the detection of chemical and biological warfare agents in the water supply in research performed under the Joint Service Agent Water Monitor. We will demonstrate the current detection limits, the reproducibility of the signal, and results collected using actual chemical warfare agents, and show how the results can be extended to vapor detection. We will also discuss the current state-of-the art for fieldable instrumentation. The emphasis on portability and speed will be stressed; SERS acquisitions are restricted to 30 s or less.