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14 June 2004 Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators fabricated by all-wet etching process using straight channel and Mach-Zehnder waveguides
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Abstract
We report hybrid electro-optic (EO) polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with a structure for an EO polymer confined laterally in a sol-gel over cladding, which is fabricated by all-wet etching process. The structure enables an adiabatic transition between the sol-gel waveguide and thick EO polymer overlayer. Intensity mode is confined well in 0.9-micron-thick EO polymer overlayer, which reduces a half wave voltage (Vπ) due to increased overlap integral in the hybrid EO modulator. Straight channel birefringence EO modulators with the structure reduce the Vπ by the factor of 4 after guided wave well confined in the EO polymer. The straight channel waveguide modulator with 2.4-cm-long electrode demonstrated the Vπ of 13 V. Preliminary testing results using a Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulator were investigated to reduce the Vπ further.
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Yasufumi Enami, Alex K-Y. Jen, Gerald R. Meredith, and Nasser Peyghambarian "Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators fabricated by all-wet etching process using straight channel and Mach-Zehnder waveguides", Proc. SPIE 5350, Optical Components and Materials, (14 June 2004); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.537376
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