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14 June 2004 Miniaturization and integration of micro/nano-scale photonic devices: scientific and technical issues
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We present an overview of our study on the scientific and technological issues and challenges concerning the miniaturization, interconnection and integration of microphotonic devices, circuits and systems in micron or submicron scale. Devices that we have used for our study include: mode conversion schemes, directional couplers, micro-ring resonator devices, micro-racetrack resonator devices, arrayed waveguide devices, multimode interference devices, microdisk lasers, vertical cavity surface emitting microlasers, and the arrays thereof. Materials used for devices include semiconductors, silica, sol-gel, and polymers. First, in miniaturization, the issues include the size effect, proximity effect, energy confinement effect, microcavitiy effect, optical and quantum interference effect, high field effect, nonlinear effect, noise effect, quantum optical effect, and chaotic effect. Secondly, in interconnection between micro/nano-scale photonic devices, issues to be addressed include optical alignment, minimizing the interconnection losses, and maintaining optical modes. Thirdly, in integration, the issues include the integration of different kinds of devices, active-active, active-passive, passive-active and passive-passive. Scaling is also an important issue both for miniaturization and integration. In the fabrication of devices, the optical quality of the walls, surfaces and interfaces of the devices is of critical importance for high performance function. We found the near-field scanning optical microsope useful in the analysis of the micro/nano-scale photonic devices.
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El-Hang Lee, Seung Gol Lee, Beom-Hoan O, and Se-Geun Park "Miniaturization and integration of micro/nano-scale photonic devices: scientific and technical issues", Proc. SPIE 5356, Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits VI, (14 June 2004);

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