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10 June 2004 Optical interconnect on printed wiring board
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Integration of high-speed parallel optical interconnects into printed wiring boards (PWB) is studied. The aim is a hybrid optical-electrical board including both electrical wiring and embedded polymer waveguides. Robust optical coupling between the waveguide and the emitter/detector should be achieved by the use of automated pick-and-place assembly. Different coupling schemes were analyzed by combining non-sequential ray tracing with Monte-Carlo tolerance simulation of misalignments. The simulations demonstrate that, with optimized optomechanical structures and with very low loss waveguides, it is possible to achieve acceptable total path loss and yield with the accuracy of automated assembly. A technical demonstrator was designed and realized to allow testing of embedded interconnects based on three different kind of optical coupling schemes: butt-coupling, and couplings based on micro-lens arrays and on micro-ball lenses. They were implemented with PIN and flip-chip-VCSEL arrays as well as 10-Gb/s/channel electronics onto LTCC-based (low-temperature co-fired ceramic) transmitter and receiver modules, which were surface mounted on high-speed PWBs. The polymer waveguides were on separate FR-4 boards to allow testing and characterization of alignment tolerances with different waveguides. With micro-lens array transmitter, the measured tolerances (±10 μm) were dominated by the thickness of the waveguides.
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Mikko Karppinen, Jukka-Tapani Makinen, Kari Kataja, Antti Tanskanen, Teemu Alajoki, Pentti Karioja, Marika Immonen, and Jorma Kivilahti "Optical interconnect on printed wiring board", Proc. SPIE 5358, Photonics Packaging and Integration IV, (10 June 2004);

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