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9 July 2004 Defect and bandgap engineering in square spiral photonic crystals
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The existence of three-dimensional photonic bandgaps in square spiral thin films, made using the Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) method, was recently verified. We further demonstrate the flexibility of the GLAD process to fabricate silicon photonic bandgap crystals with customizable bandgap centre frequencies. GLAD combines physical vapor deposition at highly oblique flux incidence angles with dual axis substrate motion control, creating porous thin films with three-dimensional submicrometer topographies. This makes it a near-ideal approach for diamond lattice based photonic crystal fabrication, with manipulation of the photonic properties through the deposition parameters. We have produced a range of different square spiral thin films, and present characterization results indicating bandgaps at wavelengths close to 2 micrometers. Such low wavelength bandgaps have not previously been achieved for square spiral architectures. Ongoing work towards optimization of the process holds the promise of square spiral photonic crystals with even lower bandgap centre wavelengths, approaching the telecommunications windows. In addition to its flexibility and mass-production suitability, we present how GLAD can be used to engineer defects inside the photonic crystals during the one-step growth process. Such defects may potentially be employed as stand-alone waveguides, or as elements of more complex photonic device and circuitry designs involving subsequent micromachining of the GLAD thin films.
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Martin O. Jensen and Michael J. Brett "Defect and bandgap engineering in square spiral photonic crystals", Proc. SPIE 5360, Photonic Crystal Materials and Devices II, (9 July 2004);


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