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14 May 2004 BIORESIST: a lithographic approach for the patterning of cells in tissue engineering applications
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Due to the involvement of organic solvents and strong bases in the pattern development process, conventional lithography, a technique that has been well-developed and widely used in the semiconductor industry, is not suitable for direct cell and protein patterning. In order to address this issue, we recently developed a biocompatible chemically amplified photoresist, BIORESIST, with which patterns can be generated without involving any harsh chemical treatment. Such a BIORESIST contains tert-butoxycarbonyl (t-BOC) protecting groups. In vitro cell culture study has shown that the t-BOC protected BIORESIST and its carboxyl-substituted counter-part interact very differently with cells. The former is non-cell adhesive, while the latter not only keeps cell attached, but also supports cell proliferation. This unique property prompted us to generate patterns (25 μm L/S) with this BIORESIST with no wet development involved. Rat fibroblast cells were cultured on the patterned surfaces. The results demonstrated that cells were strongly aligned along the patterns and attached exclusively to the adhesive region as opposed to a random appearance on the plain control surface after 24 hr of incubation. With this BIORESIST, the scalability aspect of conventional lithography could be well applied for cell patterning.
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Wei He, Kenneth E. Gonsalves, Craig R. Halberstadt, Yusif Umar, and Jae-Hak Choi "BIORESIST: a lithographic approach for the patterning of cells in tissue engineering applications", Proc. SPIE 5376, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXI, (14 May 2004);

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