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8 September 2004 Quantum confined Stark effect in coupled-cavity VCSELs
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We present a comprehensive study of coupled-cavity VCSEL structure (or CC-VCSEL), i.e. two optical cavities that share a coupling mirror and that can be independently biased using three electrical contacts. Each cavity contains multi-quantum-wells (MQW) serving as a gain or absorbing medium. We perform a thorough theoretical modeling of the CC-VCSELs taking into account the modification of the MQW optical absorption in a perpendicular external electric field, i.e. the Quantum Confined Stark Effect. Our model considers the situation of single and double wavelength lasing in forward biased cavities. We also consider the case when the light generated in one cavity optically pumps the second one with a strength that depends on the applied reverse bias to the second cavity. On this basis we develop a rate equation model that properly considers the optical field distribution of the two longitudinal modes of the coupled-cavity VCSEL. The number of modes drastically increases when one takes into account the polarization of light and the transverse mode properties. We compare our results with recently obtained experimental results on CC-VCSELs. Finally, we exploit the possibilities to realize high-speed optical switching devices such as optical modulators and field-effect QW lasers based on the QCSE in CC-VCSELs for applications in large capacity optical communications systems.
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Krassimir Panajotov, Vlad Badilita, Jean-Francois Carlin, Hugo Thienpont, and Irina Veretennicoff "Quantum confined Stark effect in coupled-cavity VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 5453, Micro-Optics, VCSELs, and Photonic Interconnects, (8 September 2004);

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