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8 September 2004 Wafer-scale replication and testing of micro-optical components for VCSELs
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VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers) emit circularly symmetric beams vertical to the substrate; the small footprint of the active area (around 400 um2) enables the simultaneous fabrication of several thousand devices on a single wafer. Micro-optical components can modify the free-space optical properties of VCSELs for applications such as fiber-coupling in transceiver modules, illumination purposes, or beam profiling in sensing applications. However, the alignment of a laser towards a lens, for example, is expensive when performed separately for each device. Here we demonstrate a wafer-scale replication process to realise microlenses directly on top of the undiced VCSEL wafers. The process combines uv-casting and lithography to achieve material-free bonding pads and dicing lines. Several examples of lenses and gratings are given. An organically modified sol-gel material (ORMOCER) has been used as lens material. The micro-optical components on the wafer show good stability while sawing and bonding, where temperatures up to 220°C may occur. We have compared refractive lenses on top of the VCSELs with lenses on glass substrates. The lenses on the glass wafers were illuminated from the back-side by a planar wave. Spot diameters around 1.2 um and focal lengths of 30 um to 100 um were measured depending on the radii of curvature. On the VCSELs the lenses showed a strong influence on the transversal mode behaviour.
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Christiane Gimkiewicz, Michael Moser, Samuel Obi, Claus Urban, Joern Sparre Pedersen, Hans Thiele, Christian Zschokke, and Michael T. Gale "Wafer-scale replication and testing of micro-optical components for VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 5453, Micro-Optics, VCSELs, and Photonic Interconnects, (8 September 2004);

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