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8 September 2004 High-brightness and long-lifetime OLED with mixing layer technology
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In this paper, we demonstrate organic light emitting devices (OLED) that exhibit high brightness, low driving voltage and long lifetime. Devices with the brightness of 10,000 cd/m2 can be achieved at 4 V by the use of the high mobility electron-transport layer (ETL) material, bis(10-hydroxybenzo[h]qinolinato)beryllium (Bebq2), and the mixing host (MH) technology. Electron mobility of Bebq2 is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the typical ETL material, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3), from the time-of-flight (TOF) measurement and hence the driving voltage can be decreased. By co-evaporating the hole-transport layer (HTL) material and the ETL material as the host of the emitting layer, it reduces two volts in driving voltage because of its bipolar transport characteristics. MH technology can not only decrease the driving voltage, but also increase the device lifetime since it eliminates the sharp boundary of HTL/ETL interface and decreases the carriers piling up near this interface which causes the organic material degradation. Compared to the conventional heterojunction (HJ) OLED, operation lifetime of MH devices was enhanced by a factor of 4.
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Jiun H. Lee, S. W. Liu, Ching-An Huang, K. H. Yang, and Yih Chang "High-brightness and long-lifetime OLED with mixing layer technology", Proc. SPIE 5464, Organic Optoelectronics and Photonics, (8 September 2004);

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