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8 September 2004 High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent OLEDs with double-doping emission layers
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We demonstrate high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by incorporating a double emission layer (D-EML) into p-i-n-type cell architecture. The D-EML comprises two layers with ambipolar transport characteristics, both doped with the green phosphorescent dye tris(phenylpyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3]. The first EML features a bipolar, but predominantly hole transporting host material, 4,4',4''-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA), while the second EML is made of an exclusively electron transporting host, e.g. 3-phenyl-4-(1'-naphthyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (TAZ); with a weak hole transport capability arising from hopping between dopant sites. The D-EML system of two bipolar layers leads to an expansion of the exciton generation region. Due to its self-balancing character, it avoids accumulation of charge carriers at any interface. Thus, a power efficiency of approximately 77 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency of 19.3% are achieved at 100 cd/m2 at an operating voltage of only 2.65V. More importantly, the efficiency decays only weakly with increasing brightness and a power efficiency of 50 lm/W is still obtained even at 4,000 cd/m2.
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Gufeng He, Desta Gebeyehu, Ansgar G. Werner, Martin Pfeiffer, and Karl Leo "High-efficiency and low-voltage p-i-n electrophosphorescent OLEDs with double-doping emission layers", Proc. SPIE 5464, Organic Optoelectronics and Photonics, (8 September 2004);

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