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8 October 2004 Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces
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Several optical elements with subwavelength structured (SWS) surfaces have been developed. The SWS has optical features of artificial refractive index, form birefringence, resonance and band-gap effects. This paper describes some applications of form birefringent optical elements and a resonant reflection element. A form-birefringent quarter-wave plate was realized by sputtering the high refractive-index thin film on a SWS substrate. The wavelength dispersion of form birefringence restrains the phase retardance from depending on the wavelength of light. An array of form-birefringent wave-plates is useful for the real-time imaging polarimetry. We developed a real-time polarization imaging system for the visible light. A guided-mode resonant grating with a PLZT wave-guide was designed for optical switches. The PLZT is ferroelectric material with an electro-optic (EO) effect. We made a feasibility study on the optical switching by numerical simulations.
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Hisao Kikuta, Hiroshi Toyota, Wanji Yu, Akio Mizutani, and Koichi Iwata "Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces", Proc. SPIE 5515, Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices, (8 October 2004);

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