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15 October 2004 Photonic crystal and air trench approaches to realize small-area bends and splitters in low index contrast waveguides
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Abstract
The ability to make small-area bends and splitters in low index contrast waveguide materials is a critical enabler to realize densely integrated planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) in such materials. We discuss two approaches, the first based on photonic crystal (PhC) structures of limited spatial extent and the second on single air trenches. In each case, PhC or air trench regions are used to augment conventional waveguides (CWGs) to permit drastic reductions in overall device size while preserving the traditional advantages of CWGs such as straightforward design for single mode operation, low propagation loss, low fiber coupling loss, low dispersion, and mature microfabrication processes. We show how these approaches can be used to realize example devices having a very small footprint, including Mach-Zender interferometers and ring resonators.
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Gregory P. Nordin, Seunghyun Kim, Lixia Li, Jingbo Cai, and Jianhua Jiang "Photonic crystal and air trench approaches to realize small-area bends and splitters in low index contrast waveguides", Proc. SPIE 5517, Linear and Nonlinear Optics of Organic Materials IV, (15 October 2004); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.559841
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