In previous study the high impact of development by-products on Critical Dimension (CD) through the microloading effect has been demonstrated for a Novolak resist. In this paper, through further tests involving Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) and Novolak resist, the microloading effect of development is characterized and tentative mechanism is presented.
Megasonic Immersion Development (MID), a high flow rate development technique similar to the Proximity Gap Suction Development (PGSD), was used and compared with spin spray development and puddle development.
On TOK IP3600, a Novolak resist, we have explored a wide range of process conditions with MID. Developer temperature was varied from 5°C to 40°C with TMAH developer concentration of 1.9% and 2.38% resulting in an isofocal dose range of 90mJ to 190mJ. Exposure Focus Matrix (EFM) with a specific microloading pattern and resist cross sections were performed. The best conditions are quite far from the standard process advised by the resist supplier. Very nice standing wave profile was obtained at high temperature development.
On CAR, JEOL 9000MVII, a 50kV e-beam vector scan tool, and ETEC ALTA 4300, a DUV raster scan tool, were used with different develop process techniques including MID. FujiFilm Arch FEP-171 positive CAR and Sumitomo NEB-22 negative CAR were used on 50kV writing tool. Sumitomo PEK-130 was used on DUV writing tool. FEP-171 and PEK-1300 show microloading effect on high density patterns but not NEB-22.
MID shows also improved reproduction of develop features in the chrome and a 20% improvement of CD uniformity. The results of this study seem to indicate that a closer look in their development process is needed for 90nm and 65nm technologies.