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9 December 2004 Human perception of fixed pattern noise in pyramidal CMOS image sensor
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We demonstrate a non-orthogonal image sensor architecture, called pyramid architecture in which the 2D sampling co-centric rings replaces the 1D row sampling in the classical imager architectures and the diagonals output busses replaces the classical vertical column busses. As the imager fixed pattern noise (FPN) is distributed on the output busses, the noise in the classical CMOS imagers will be distributed vertically leading to vertical strips. In our imager, this noise strips will be distributed diagonally. It is a well known fact that the human visual system is less sensitive to obliquely ordered contrast than to the orthogonal contrast. This characteristic is a very important feature of the human visual system which is therefore more sensitive to orthogonally distributed noise than to the diagonally generated noise of our pyramidal imager. So our pyramidal imager is benefiting from this limitation of human vision system sensitivity to diagonal contrast to make its inherent noise (FPN) not apparent to the human eye. Moreover, we proposed a scanning scheme in which instead of rolling over to the first ring (or row) at the end of image scanning it bounces off each time it reaches the two edges of the pyramid imager and samples back the image to the starting ring and continues on. This leads to a two scenes of rings’ integration time profiles that after being fused results in foveated dynamic range.
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Faycal Saffih, Richard I. Hornsey, and Hugh R. Wilson "Human perception of fixed pattern noise in pyramidal CMOS image sensor", Proc. SPIE 5578, Photonics North 2004: Photonic Applications in Astronomy, Biomedicine, Imaging, Materials Processing, and Education, (9 December 2004);

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