The online measurement of wheel set wear parameters is important for ensuring the safety of train vehicle and increasing the reliability and efficiency of maintaining. The paper researched an automatic measuring method of wheel set parameters based on CCD and image processing. The method used precision laser displacement sensor, CCD, digital image processing and motion control technology to realize the non-contact automatic measuring of wheel set parameters. These parameters include the flange thickness, flange height, wheel diameter, rim inside distance, rim inside thickness, rim width, scotching and flaking on wheel tread. The tread and flange profile were captured using laser source and high resolution CCD sensor. The image SNR was gained through narrow band-pass optical filters which wavelength matched with laser source. In order to detect the irregular tread failures formed in running of train vehicle, the paper used precision laser displacement sensor to scan the tread and acquire the position while the wheel set was rotating. The displacement data of different positions were transformed to digital image. Then digital image processing was used to distinguish and judge the failures. The measuring accuracy of geometrical parameters, scotching depth and flaking length were 0.2mm, 0.1mm and 0.5mm respectively. The repeatability and accuracy can meet the demand of non-contact online wheel set maintaining.