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4 April 2005 Optical waveguide fabricated by ion-exchange using stain method
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Optical waveguides were prepared by the incorporation of silver or copper ions using the classical staining. We used commercially available soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses as substrates. Silver or copper stain was applied on a side of the glass substrates. The substrates were heat-treated at elevated temperature for various times. The treated glasses were optically clear and almost colorless except for a few samples stained for longer time. This indicates that silver and copper metal nanoparticles and Cu2O nanoparticles causing coloration of glasses were not formed in the glass substrates. The ion-incorporation process was approximately controlled by the diffusion of ions. We observed the propagation of 633 nm laser radiation by a prism coupling method showing that the glass surface region plays a role of waveguide. Refractive index change more than 0.01 at 633 nm was achieved in the waveguide layers.
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Kohei Kadono, Tatsuya Suetsugu, Takeshi Ohtani, Norimasa Kominami, Minoru Takada, Toshihiko Einishi, and Takashi Tarumi "Optical waveguide fabricated by ion-exchange using stain method", Proc. SPIE 5723, Optical Components and Materials II, (4 April 2005);

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