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14 March 2005 Electrically pumped 850-nm micromirror VECSELs
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Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) combine high optical power and good beam quality in a device with surface-normal output. In this paper, we describe the design and operating characteristics of an electrically-pumped VECSEL that employs a wafer-scale fabrication process and operates at 850 nm. A curved micromirror output coupler is heterogeneously integrated with AlGaAs-based semiconductor material to form a compact and robust device. The structure relies on flip-chip bonding the processed epitaxial material to an aluminum nitride mount; this heatsink both dissipates thermal energy and permits high frequency modulation using coplanar traces that lead to the VECSEL mesa. Backside emission is employed, and laser operation at 850 nm is made possible by removing the entire GaAs substrate through selective wet etching. While substrate removal eliminates absorptive losses, it simultaneously compromises laser performance by increasing series resistance and degrading the spatial uniformity of current injection. Several aspects of the VECSEL design help to mitigate these issues, including the use of a novel current-spreading n type distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Additionally, VECSEL performance is improved through the use of a p-type DBR that is modified for low thermal resistance.
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Gordon A. Keeler, Darwin K. Serkland, Kent M. Geib, Gregory M. Peake, and Alan Mar "Electrically pumped 850-nm micromirror VECSELs", Proc. SPIE 5737, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, (14 March 2005);

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