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12 April 2005 A robust fluoroscope tracking (FTRAC) fiducial
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Purpose: C-arm fluoroscopy is ubiquitous in contemporary surgery, but it lacks the ability to accurately reconstruct 3D information. A major obstacle in fluoroscopic reconstruction is discerning the pose of the X-ray image, in 3D space. Optical/magnetic trackers are prohibitively expensive, intrusive and cumbersome. Method: We present single-image-based fluoroscope tracking (FTRAC) with the use of an external radiographic fiducial consisting of a mathematically optimized set of points, lines, and ellipses. The fiducial encodes six degrees of freedom in a single image by creating a unique view from any direction. A non-linear optimizer can rapidly compute the pose of the fiducial using this image. The current embodiment has salient attributes: small dimensions (3 x 3 x 5 cm), it need not be close to the anatomy of interest and can be segmented automatically. Results: We tested the fiducial and the pose recovery method on synthetic data and also experimentally on a precisely machined mechanical phantom. Pose recovery had an error of 0.56 mm in translation and 0.33° in orientation. Object reconstruction had a mean error of 0.53 mm with 0.16 mm STD. Conclusion: The method offers accuracies similar to commercial tracking systems, and is sufficiently robust for intra-operative quantitative C-arm fluoroscopy.
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Ameet Kumar Jain, Tabish Mustufa, Yu Zhou, E. Clif Burdette, Gregory S. Chirikjian, and Gabor Fichtinger "A robust fluoroscope tracking (FTRAC) fiducial", Proc. SPIE 5744, Medical Imaging 2005: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display, (12 April 2005);

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