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12 April 2005 Visual detection with non-Lambertian displays: model and human observer results
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Many investigators have now recognized that deviations from the on-axis grayscale presentation function in non-Lambertian displays affect the way images are presented to the human observer. However, the quantification of that effect in terms of detection performance has not yet been reported. In the past, we have described physical measurements of the off-axis changes in display luminance and contrast, and on the incorporation of such measurements into a simple mathematical transformation acting on image data that mimics the effect of off-axis viewing. In this paper, we report on the performance of model and human observers with respect to on- and off-axis viewing. The model observers used are the ideal linear observer with off-axis template knowledge and a human-like observer that incorporates quantization due to limited bit-depth and contrast sensitivity of the human visual system. Our results for diagonal viewing at 30 and 45° from the display normal in a 5-million-pixel, monochrome, in-plane-switching, dual-domain AMLCD suggest severe degradation in detection performance. A human-like model which considers the contrast sensitivity of the visual system - not the ideal linear observer - can be used to approximately map off-axis grayscale changes into detectability maps for non-Lambertian displays. This investigation contributes to the setting of viewing angle requirements for medical imaging monitors based on robust observer performance data.
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Aldo Badano, Brandon D. Gallas, and Dipesh H. Fifadara "Visual detection with non-Lambertian displays: model and human observer results", Proc. SPIE 5744, Medical Imaging 2005: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display, (12 April 2005);

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