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4 May 2005 Nanocomposite liquids for 193 nm immersion lithography: a progress report
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Immersion lithography is a new promising approach capable of further increasing the resolution of semiconductor devices. This technology requires the development of new immersion media that satisfy the following conditions: the media should have high refractive index, be transparent and photochemically stable in DUV spectral range. They should also be inert towards photoresists and optics and be liquid to permit rapid scanning. Here we propose and explore a novel strategy in which high refractive index medium is made of small solid particles suspended in liquid phases (nanocomposite liquids). The dielectric particles have high refractive index and the refractive index of nanocomposite liquids becomes volume weighted average between refractive indices of nanoparticles and the liquid phase. We investigate aluminum oxide (alumina) nanoparticles suspended in water. Alumina is known to have high (1.95) refractive index and low absorption coefficient at 193 nm. Alumina nanoparticles were prepared by chemical methods followed by removal of organic molecules left after hydrolysis reactions. Measurements of optical and reological properties of the nanocomposite liquid demonstrated potential advantage of this approach for 193 nm immersion lithography.
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George Chumanov, David D. Evanoff Jr., Igor Luzinov, Viktor Klep, Bogdan Zdryko, Will Conley, and Paul Zimmerman "Nanocomposite liquids for 193 nm immersion lithography: a progress report", Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005);

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