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12 May 2005 Determination of mask induced polarization effects occurring in hyper NA immersion lithography
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As the lithographic projection technology of the future will require higher numerical aperture (NA) values, new physical effects will have to be taken into consideration. Immersion lithography will result in NA values of up to 1.2 and above. New optical effects like 3D shadowing, effects from oblique incident angles, mask-induced polarization of the transmitted light and birefringence from the substrate should be considered when the masks optical performance is evaluated. This paper addresses mask induced polarization effects from dense lines-and-space structures of standard production masks. On a binary and on an attenuated phase-shifting mask, which were manufactured at the Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) transmission experimental investigations were performed. Measurements of diffraction efficiencies for TE- and TM-polarized light using three different incident angles are presented for all considered mask types and compared to simulations. The structures under investigation include line-space-pattern with varying pitches as well as varying duty cycles. Experimental results show good agreement with simulations.
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Silvio Teuber, Karsten Bubke, Ingo Hollein, Ralf Ziebold, and Jan Hendrik Peters "Determination of mask induced polarization effects occurring in hyper NA immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 5754, Optical Microlithography XVIII, (12 May 2005);

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