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12 May 2005 Physically based compact models for fast lithography simulation
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Among other requirements, a state-of-the-art lithography process is composed of advanced hardware tools and resolution enhancement techniques (RET). The successful application of these techniques depends on fast and accurate simulation of the pattern transfer process. In this paper, state-of-the-art modeling techniques are investigated and compared with on-wafer measurement results obtained using a 0.75NA ArF scanner. In particular, the correct separation of optical and process effects in a TCCcalc lithography model is evaluated by comparison of experimental results to simulation results, based on systematic changes of the process conditions. Statistical fits are generated to compare measured vs. simulated data sets. In each experiment, the model correctly predicts the process behavior, and error levels remain constant or within several nanometers of the baseline conditions. CD-SEM images of several patterns at various conditions were overlaid to simulated printed images. The overlaid images show good prediction of final wafer printed images, even under non-baseline conditions. This evaluation confirms the separation between optical and resist model.
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Neal Lafferty, Kostas Adam, Yuri Granik, Andres Torres, and Wilhelm Maurer "Physically based compact models for fast lithography simulation", Proc. SPIE 5754, Optical Microlithography XVIII, (12 May 2005);

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