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12 May 2005 Identification in static luminance and color noise
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If images from multiple sources (e.g. from the different bands of a multi-band sensor) are displayed in color, Signal and Noise may appear as luminance and color differences in the image. As a consequence, the perception of color differences may be important for Target Acquisition performance with fused imagery. Luminance and color can be represented in a 3-D space; in the CIE 1994 color difference model, the three perceptual directions are lightness (L*), chroma (C*) and hue (h*). In this 3-D color space, we performed two perception experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured human observer detection thresholds (JND's) for uniformly distributed static noise (fixed pattern noise) in L*, C* or h* on a uniform background. The results show that the JND for noise in L* is significantly lower than for noise in C* or h*. In Experiment 2, we measured the threshold contrast for identification (orientation discrimination) of a Ushaped test target on a noisy background. With test symbol and background noise in L*, the ratio between signal threshold and noise level is constant. With the symbol in a different direction, we found little dependency on noise level. The results may be used to optimize the use of color to human detection and identification performance with multi-band systems.
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Piet Bijl, Marcel P. Lucassen, and Jolanda Roelofsen "Identification in static luminance and color noise", Proc. SPIE 5784, Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XVI, (12 May 2005);

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