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25 May 2005 Utilization of GPS surface reflected signals to provide aircraft altitude verification for SVS
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The Global Positioning System (GPS) consists of a constellation of Earth orbiting satellites that transmit continuous electromagnetic signals to users on or near the Earth surface. At any moment of time, at least four GPS satellites, and sometimes nine or more, are visible from any point. The electromagnetic signal transmitted from the satellites is reflected to at least some degree from virtually every place on the Earth. When this signal is received by a specially constructed receiver, its characteristics can be used to determine information about the reflected surface. One piece of information collected is the time delay encountered by the reflected signal versus the direct signal. This time delay can be used to determine the altitude (or height) above the local terrain when the terrain in the reflection area is level. However, given the potential of simultaneously using multiple reflections, it should be possible to also determine the elevation above even terrains where the reflecting area is not level. Currently an effort is underway to develop the technology to characterize the reflected signal that is received by the GPS Surface Reflection Experiment (GSRE) instrument. Recent aircraft sorties have been flown to collect data that can be used to refine the technology. This paper provides an update on the status of the instrument development to enable determination of terrain proximity using the GPS Reflected signal. Results found in the data collected to date are also discussed.
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George G. Ganoe and Steven D. Young "Utilization of GPS surface reflected signals to provide aircraft altitude verification for SVS", Proc. SPIE 5802, Enhanced and Synthetic Vision 2005, (25 May 2005);

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