Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with 676.4 and 1064 nm excitations was used to investigate single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) compressed non-hydrostatically at 0.58 GPa, alone and dispersed into chemical reactive and non-reactive (SiO2 and Al2O3) host matrices. As reactive host matrices, we used inorganic compounds (KI and Ag microparticles) and aromatic hydrocarbons (biphenyl, naphthalene, p-terphenyl, phenantrene). SERS spectra indicate that by compression, SWNTs break in fragments of different size, which in turn can react or not with the host matrix. Various mechanico-chemical reactions take place. In inorganic matrices such as KI and Ag, donor-acceptor complexes are formed. Regardless of aromatic hydrocarbons type used as organic matrices, i.e. with isolated or condensed phenyl rings, a non-covalent functionalization of SWNTs is produced. Using aromatic hydrocarbons with isolated phenyl rings like biphenyl or p-terphenyl, an ionic and covalent functionalization of SWNT fragments is demonstrated by the appearance of new Raman bands at 1160 and 1458 cm-1, the latter being associated with the Ag(2) pentagonal pinch mode observed regularly in Raman spectra of C60 fullerenes. The signature for the appearance of short fragments of carbon nanotubes, behaving as closed-shell fullerenes, is observed also in photoluminescence spectra carried out on SWNTs compressed in biphenyl and p-terphenyl matrix. Additional proofs are found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations.