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7 July 2005 Silicon Raman laser, amplifier, and wavelength converter (Keynote Paper)
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Proceedings Volume 5840, Photonic Materials, Devices, and Applications; (2005)
Event: Microtechnologies for the New Millennium 2005, 2005, Sevilla, Spain
In silicon, direct electronic transitions leading to light emission have a low probability of occurrence due to the momentum mismatch between upper and lower electronic levels. Until recently, this had prevented the realization of the long waited silicon optical amplifier and laser. Raman scattering, which describes the interactions of light with vibrational levels, can be used as a way to bypass the indirect band structure of silicon and to obtain amplification and lasing. The Raman approach is very appealing because device can be made in pure silicon with a spectrum that is widely tuneable though the pump laser wavelength. While a new research topic, amplifiers with pulsed gain of 20dB and CW gain of 3 dB have already been demonstrated. Using parametric Raman coupling, wavelength conversion from 1550nm to 1300nm has been achieved. A distinguishing feature of silicon Raman devices, compared to fiber devices, is the electronic modulation capability. By integrating a p-n junction with the silicon gain medium, electrically switched lasers and amplifiers have already been demonstrated. These have many exciting applications. For example, the laser can be directly modulated to transmit data, and can be part of a silicon optoelectronic integrated circuit. At the same time, electrically switched amplifiers represent loss-less optical modulators.
© (2005) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Bahram Jalali, Ozdal Boyraz, Dimitri Dimitropoulos, and Varun Raghunathan "Silicon Raman laser, amplifier, and wavelength converter (Keynote Paper)", Proc. SPIE 5840, Photonic Materials, Devices, and Applications, (7 July 2005);

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