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5 October 2005 Photovoltaic effect and generation of dark photovoltaic solitons in Fe:LiNbO3
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We have measured the photovoltaic current of the iron doped lithium niobate and determined the photovoltaic constants of the photovoltaic tensor. We used 0.25 wt.% Fe (verified with Rutherford back scattering method) doped z-cut crystals. We used the coplanar surface electrodes setup. The current was measured by a picoampermeter. We have analyzed the current as a function of the optical intensity and as a function of the polarization angle of the laser beam. The accuracy of the measurements is estimated to be of about 20%. We used the measured photovoltaic effect for the generation of spatial solitons. We generated dark planar photovoltaic spatial solitons in iron doped lithium niobate, and we measured properties of the waveguides generated by the spatial soliton. We created dark photovoltiac solitons in a bulk crystal with the optical intesity 1-10 mW/cm2, and the soliton's FWHM about 5-18μm. We observed the temporal evolution of the one-dimensional dark photovoltaic solitons under open-circuit condition, and the self-defocusing effect of the laser beam. The steady-state measurement (stable soliton) was obtained after a 6-15 min exposure. For the generation the argon ion laser beam at the wavelength of 514 nm was used. It was polarized along the optical axis and collimated to a diameter of about 2 mm on the input face. The resulting index perturbation forms a planar waveguide. We have measured its properties-the refractive index change and attenuation of the TE mode at the red He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm.
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Michal Bodnar and Petr Hribek "Photovoltaic effect and generation of dark photovoltaic solitons in Fe:LiNbO3", Proc. SPIE 5949, Nonlinear Optics Applications, 59490E (5 October 2005);

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