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12 October 2005 Negative refraction and subwavelength focusing using photonic crystals
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Recently left-handed materials (LHM) attracted great attention since these materials exhibit negative effective index, which is due to simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity. Negative refraction is also achievable in a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) that has a periodically modulated positive permittivity and a permeability of unity. In this paper, we report our experimental and theoretical investigation of negative refraction and subwavelength focusing of electromagnetic waves in a 2D PC. Our structure consists of a square array of dielectric rods in air. Transmission measurements are performed for experimentally verifying the predicted negative refraction behavior in our structure. Since we know the optimum frequency for a broad angle negative refraction, we can use our crystal to test the superlensing effect that was predicted for negative refractive materials. We achieved a subwavelength resolution for the image of two incoherent point sources, which are separated by a distance of lamda/3. We also measured the spectral refraction analysis and focusing properties of a two-dimensional, dielectric photonic crystal (PC) slab in free space. We demonstrate experimentally and numerically the focusing of the field emitted from an omnidirectional source placed in front of the crystal. Both the source and the focus pattern are away from the PC interfaces of the order of several wavelengths. The focus pattern mimics the arbitrary lateral and longitudinal shifts of the source, which is a manifestation of true flat lens behavior.
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Ekmel Ozbay "Negative refraction and subwavelength focusing using photonic crystals", Proc. SPIE 5950, Photonic Crystals and Fibers, 59500J (12 October 2005);

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