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25 October 2005 Single photon detection using Geiger mode CMOS avalanche photodiodes
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Geiger mode Avalanche Photodiodes fabricated using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication technology combine high sensitivity detectors with pixel-level auxiliary circuitry. Radiation Monitoring Devices has successfully implemented CMOS manufacturing techniques to develop prototype detectors with active diameters ranging from 5 to 60 microns and measured detection efficiencies of up to 60%. CMOS active quenching circuits are included in the pixel layout. The actively quenched pixels have a quenching time less than 30 ns and a maximum count rate greater than 10 MHz. The actively quenched Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (GPD) has linear response at room temperature over six orders of magnitude. When operating in Geiger mode, these GPDs act as single photon-counting detectors that produce a digital output pulse for each photon with no associated read noise. Thermoelectrically cooled detectors have less than 1 Hz dark counts. The detection efficiency, dark count rate, and after-pulsing of two different pixel designs are measured and demonstrate the differences in the device operation. Additional applications for these devices include nuclear imaging and replacement of photomultiplier tubes in dosimeters.
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William G. Lawrence, Christopher Stapels, Frank L. Augustine, and James F. Christian "Single photon detection using Geiger mode CMOS avalanche photodiodes", Proc. SPIE 6013, Optoelectronic Devices: Physics, Fabrication, and Application II, 601308 (25 October 2005);

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