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23 February 2006 Simple fabrication of waveguide core using a vacuum process
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We have developed a dye-doping process into a polymer, termed the "vapor transportation method." This method enables us to prepare a favorable doped layer in the polymer, possessing both a uniform dye concentration and a smooth surface. As one of developments of the vapor transportation method, we expanded to preparation of the optical waveguide. In preparation of the waveguide, low-molecular weight compound (phenyl benzoate; PB) showing the higher refractive index was dispersed in a matrix polymer (poly (methyl methacrylate), PMMA) through a mask by the developed method. After dispersion, the mask was removed, and another PMMA plate was put on doped PMMA by vacuum press. A double-layered structure of the doped and non-doped regions was observed in the cross section, further, two regions described were transparent. It was confirmed that a beam incident on the edge of the doped region of the prepared sample emerged from the other edge, indicating that the doped regions acted as a core. The core radius (depth of the doped region) increased with treatment time and treatment temperature. Furthermore, refractive index of the core was controlled by treatment temperature. The fabricated waveguide showed the propagation loss of 0.47 dB/cm at 650 nm.
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Hiroyuki Mochizuki, Toshiko Mizokuro, Kensuke Murai, and Nobutaka Tanigaki "Simple fabrication of waveguide core using a vacuum process", Proc. SPIE 6117, Organic Photonic Materials and Devices VIII, 61171A (23 February 2006);

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