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29 March 2006 Pattern defect study using cover material film in immersion lithography
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In immersion lithography, it is necessary that the surface of wafer has high hydrohybicity in order to prevent the residue of immersion fluid, i.e. pure water, that cause watermark defect. Usage of a cover material film over the resist film is effective to consistent with high hydrohybicity of the surface and high performance of resist film. But it was problem that much pattern deformation defects was observed with the use of an alkali-soluble type cover material film and an immersion exposure tool. As a result of the examination, it was identified that the fraction of film which caused the pattern deformation in the area of several micrometers were the fraction of the cover material. And the fractions of cover coat material were oriented in the coating defects of the cover material film and in the film peeling after scan of the immersion nozzle at the wafer bevel. The coating defects were improved with the chemical of the cover material. An adhesion process was effective to prevent the film peeling of cover material.
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Daisuke Kawamura, Tomoyuki Takeishi, Kentarou Matsunaga, Eishi Shiobara, Yasunobu Oonishi, and Shinichi Ito "Pattern defect study using cover material film in immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 6153, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXIII, 61531Q (29 March 2006);

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